Address Range

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Summary: Digital Command Control systems partition their address ranges into Primary, Accessory and Extended Addresses. These addresses allow control of various decoders by the DCC system.

Short Definition
The range of addresses available on a Digital Command Control system.

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Multifunction decoders can be addressed by either Two or Four digit numbers. The digits in are Hexadecimal (base 16) numbers, not Decimal (base 10).

Two-digit addresses ranging from 1 to 127 are possible. Some systems, such as Lenz, may limit the maximum to 99 for legacy reasons. Four digit addressing offers a potential range of addresses from 1 to 10239.

Multifunction and Accessory Decoder Address Ranges

Select − And − Run

With Digital Command Control there is no need to worry about where the train is located, which cab you're using, or flip switches to get control a locomotive. To run a loco, you simply pick up a cab, select the loco address (number) you wish to run, and take control of it. This allows you to easily and quickly control the train's speed, direction, lights, and functions.


Read Me First

This section explains the numbering systems and terms which will be used.

NMRA Address Partitions

While this is an Advanced Digital Command Control Topic, it is useful to know how Digital Command Control addresses are structured.

  • Numbering systems will be indicated using mathematical notation, where a subscript indicates the radix or base, where 1210 indicates a decimal (base 10) value, or C216 is Base 16 or Hexadecimal. In this article, Hex numbers may also be prefixed with a dollar sign ($). If there is no subscript indicating the base, the number has a decimal (0 - 9) value.
  • The number of digits refers to a Hex Number, where a digit has a value from 0 to 15 ($0 - $F).
  • A Multifunction Decoder can use one byte for the Primary Address, or two bytes for an Extended Address.
  • An Accessory Decoder may use three bytes for its address.
  • NMRA DCC Standard defines the address partitions for 2- and 4-digit addresses, while the actual implementation is determined by the manufacturer of the system. Not all systems implement the addressing scheme in the same manner within their software, so there may be issues with two-digit addresses used by a your DCC system when operated on another DCC system.
  • For example, while Address "100" is a two digit ($64 in hex) Primary Address, a DCC manufacturer may have limited their primary address range to a maximum value of 99 or $63. [1]

Do not worry about hexadecimal too much, many DCC systems allow entry in decimal numbers and will do the conversion internally.

Should I Use Primary or Extended Addresses for Multifunction Decoders?

Notes Regarding Address Partitions and Multifunction Decoders

CPR 8909 H-24-66 Train Master.JPG
  • Primary Addresses range is from 1 to 127 [2]. Consist Addresses share the Primary Address partition.
  • Extended Addresses occupy a separate address partition, with valid addresses from 128 to 10,000+. They do not overlap the Primary Address partition.
  • The NMRA has mandated that any DCC compatible product lacking support for features such as Extended Addressing, a reduced Primary Address space or 28/128 Speed Steps must state that on the package and within the instructions.

Primary versus Extended Addressing

The choice of addressing modes is a personal one. If operation with multiple unit consists are planned, Extended Address mode is a better choice. Using an Extended Address avoids conflicts with Consist Addresses which occupy the Primary Address partition.

With less than 20 or 25 locos on the layout, Primary Addresses work. Give each loco an address using the last two digits of the road number on the side of the loco. If you have duplicate numbers, use the first two digits of the road number. If that doesn't work, you may have to renumber one or more locos − or switch to Extended Addressing.

Mixing Primary and Extended Addressing can lead to an unintended problem with consisting.

Two locomotives with Extended Addresses are consisted and assigned Consist Address 126. A third locomotive exists with the Primary Address of 126, which will not be included in the consist. Commands sent to Address 126 will be acted on both Consist Address 126 and Primary Address 126. Despite the fact that locomotive #126 is not physically part of the consist, logically it is.

To use Extended Addresses, both the command station and decoders must support Extended Addresses, as well as the throttles. Typically, all decoders support both modes, and the majority of DCC systems support Extended Addressing. Research your choice of DCC systems and components for compatibility, as restrictions, such as limited Primary Address support, are required be stated on the packaging. Extended addressing makes it easy to use the road number of a locomotive as its address (Exception: Europe, where 5 digits may be used by the prototype).

Address Partitioning, Extended Packet Format (S−9.1.2)

The Address Partitioning allows the decoder to determine if the packet is a multifunction[3] or accessory[4] decoder packet.

Address Partitions, Extended Packets, S−9.1.2
DCCWiki.com
Address Binary Value Hexadecimal Value
0 0000 0000 $00 Broadcast Address, all multifunction decoders must obey
1 − 127 [5] 0000 0001 − 0111 1111 $01 − $7F Multifunction decoder 7 bit address. CV1[6]
128 − 191[5] 1000 0000 − 1011 1111 $80 − $BF Basic Accessory Decoder 9 Bit Address or
Extended Accessory Decoder 11 Bit Address
CV1/CV513 [7]
192 − 231[5] 1100 0000 − 1110 0111 $C0 − $E7 Multifunction Decoder 14 bit address. [8] CV17 [9]
232 − 254[5] 1110 1000 − 1111 1110 $E8 − $FE Reserved for Future Use
255 1111 1111 $FF Idle Packet
dccwiki.com/Address_Range

By partitioning the addresses into distinct ranges, the decoder can examine the address byte and determine if that packet is for it or not. The command station will generate that specific address byte depending on what type of decoder it is addressed to. An address of 100 ($64) is reserved for multifunction decoders, so a multifunction decoder with that address will respond to that packet. A packet with the address byte beginning with $80 to $BF would be for an Accessory decoder, and those beginning with $C0 to $E7 are Multifunction Decoder Extended Addresses. Address $FF is reserved for the idle packet's address.

If an Extended Address is used, the first address byte will have values between 192 and 231[5]. Multifunction decoders set for Extended Address Mode (CV29) will respond to an address byte in that range, knowing that the second byte completes the address.

  1. A Primary Address uses one byte to transmit 2 hexadecimal digits
  2. An Extended Address uses two bytes, transmitting 4 hexadecimal digits.
  3. The Primary Address is stored in the multifunction decoder’s CV1
  4. The Extended Address uses calculated values stored in CV17 and CV18

Determining what type of address is simple:

  1. If all bits are zero, it is the broadcast address.
  2. If the first byte has a value between 1 and 127, it is a 2-digit (one byte) address for a multi−function decoder. [5]
  3. If the first bit is a 1 and the second is a zero, with the remaining bits having a value between 128 and 191[5], it is an Accessory decoder address.
  4. If the first and second bits are 1, it is a 2-byte, Extended Multifunction Decoder address.
  5. If all the bits are 1, it is an idle packet.

Multifunction Decoder Addressing

Reference: Configuration Variables For Digital Command Control, All Scales, S-9.2.2

Default Address

NMRA Standard S−9.2.2 defines the default Primary Address as 3 (three) for retail multifunction decoders. If the multifunction decoder is installed by a manufacturer in a locomotive or other vehicle, it can be any value. The often-repeated statement regarding the default always being 3 (three) is a myth. [10]

Multifunction Decoder Primary and Extended Address Ranges

As noted above, the NMRA Standard defines two ranges of addresses for multifunction decoders:

Primary Address Range

The first address range defined is 1 through 127. [1]This is the Primary Address. It is a one-byte (eight bit) address which in Hexadecimal (see Binary) can have values of 0116 to 7F16 (1 to 127 in decimal) − hence it is sometimes called a Two Digit Address. Other terms used for the Primary address are Short, Baseline or 7−bit Address. It is called a 7−bit address because the first or most significant bit (MSB) in the address byte is always a zero when it is addressing a multifunction decoder in primary address mode. The MSB of this byte can be used for other purposes. [11]

Extended Address Range
Inaccurately referred to as a 4-digit address

The Extended Address range is 1 through 10239 (116 to 27FF16). The Address Partitioning results in 39 or 40 (depending on the command station's software) groups of 256 addresses, for 9984 or 10240 possible addresses in total. To use an Extended Address, the EAM flag in CV29 must be set. Doing so tells the multifunction decoder's firmware to use the values stored in CV17 and 18.

This address consists of two bytes, six bits in the first address byte (CV17) and eight in the second (CV18). [12] To reach FFFF16 (or 6553510) would require all 16 bits, meaning there would not be any bits left to indicate which addressing mode is in use. Most command stations calculate CV17 and CV18 automatically, setting CV29 appropriately in the process. Some command stations may permit 1 – 127 as an Extended Address, others prevent their use or that of leading zeros to pad an address (i.e. 0075). This can be an issue if a locomotive it taken to layout which uses another DCC system.

Archaic terms for Extended Addresses are "14−bit" or "Long" Addresses. Sometimes called a 14−bit address as 6 address bits are transmitted in the first address byte of the DCC packet in extended address mode. The first two bits of the first byte are reserved and always set to 1.

All DCC Command Stations, Throttles, and Decoders support two−digit (Primary) addressing as per the NMRA standard. Even if your equipment has four−digit addressing, you don't have to use it. [1]

Also see the article on Consisting, as the Consist Address (CV19) can be an issue when a locomotive is used on another layout.

Broadcast Address / Address Zero

Multifunction Decoder

Address Zero is reserved in the NMRA Standard S-9.2.1 for exclusive usage as a "Broadcast Address". [13]

Any DCC locomotive receiving a DCC command packet sent to this address must accept the DCC command without regard or consideration of its assigned address. NCE uses this feature in the Power Pro software to clear consists.

The value stored in CV1 does not need to be "0" for this feature to work. Therefore, this address is NOT a locomotive address that a user needs for the normal control of his trains. However, this is an address the DCC system itself may want to send. An example at the DCC system level is E-STOP command which will halt all trains immediately without disconnection of track power.

See Braking District for more on using the broadcast packet to stop trains.

Note Regarding CV 1

Important: Never set CV1 to a value of Zero! CV1 acts with CV12 [14]. Setting CV1 to zero causes the decoder to ignore the Alternate Power Source switch in CV29, enabling Power Source Conversion (CV12 [15][16]), which may result in a runaway locomotive.

Accessory Decoder

A broadcast address for accessory decoders is also available.

NMRA Multifunction Decoder Address Range Summary

  1. Primary Addresses are the values from 1 to 127 (inclusive). These values are found in CV1 (Primary Address). [17]
  2. Extended Addresses are values from 128 to 10239. These values are stored in CVs 17 and 18 (Extended Address), and are only active if the Extended Address Mode flag in CV29 is set. [17]
  3. Advanced Consist Addresses use the Primary Address range.
  4. Address "0" can have a number of meanings. That address is not permitted in CV1 (Primary Address).
  5. Manufacturers of DCC command stations are not required to implement the entire range of Primary and Extended addresses, such as limiting the Primary Addresses to 1 − 99.
  6. The terms "2 digit" and "4 digit" address are not technically correct for decimal numbers.
    1. Primary Address is limited to 127, as the MSB (most significant bit) indicates headlight status. [17]
    2. Extended Addresses use the MSBs of the first byte to indicate Extended Addresses.
    3. Two-digit address refers to a single byte binary or 2-digit hex number, four digit means a 2-byte address (Four Hex Digits). The actual decimal value can be more than 9999 in 4-digit mode.

Multifunction Decoder Address Compatibility Issues

There is some overlap in addressing, different command stations handle that overlap differently. Some command stations do not allow use of low addresses (1 − 99 or 1 − 127) in four-digit mode.
  • The standard does not require the manufacturer to implement all the addresses possible in their command station software.
  • Primary Address Range may be restricted to numbers between one and ninety-nine (0x63). A locomotive programmed for 101 (0x65) will not run on a DCC system which restricts the maximum address to 99.
    • Some systems may limit addresses to a small range, such as 1 to 10. This is often done for cost reasons. These restrictions must be clearly identified on the packaging and in the instructions for the DCC system in question.
  • The Extended Address range is limited to a maximum value of 10,239. Some systems will limit this to 9,999 or less. For most users this will not be an issue, as they still have 90% of the address space available.
  • With an overlap between Primary and Extended Address values of 1 – 127, the decoder recognizes the difference, as the address byte will equal to or greater than 192.
  • If the Primary Address in CV1 is set to a value of 0 or an invalid address, the decoder will, upon power up, switch to the Alternate Power Source defined in CV12. This will override CV29. Any locomotive configured in this manner will immediately accelerate to full speed when the DCC track power comes on.
    • CV12 is an optional CV. If the decoder does not support an alternate command control system, CV12 will be omitted. In many multifunction decoders the only alternate mode available is Analog.

Programming a Multifunction Decoder Address

Attempting to program an extended address using Program on the Main (POM) mode can cause problems. See the article on Decoder Programming for more details.

  • Most command stations handle all the needed calculations required to program addresses. Their software eliminates the need to calculate and enter values into CV29, CV17 and CV18. This is why there may be an overlap between manufacturers regarding Primary and Extended address implementation.

DCC Systems and Addressing Ranges

NMRA Standard Addressing Schemes

NMRA DCC Addressing Methods
Address Decimal Hexadecimal Notes
Primary 1 − 127 $1 − $7F
Extended 1 − 10239 $1 − $27FF
Advanced Consist 1 − 127 $1 − $7F Address space shared with Primary Address

Digitrax

  • 0 = Analog Mode
  • 1-127: Primary Address
  • 128-9983: Extended Address
  • Advanced Consist Address: 1 - 127

The software in the Digitrax command stations only support Primary addresses in the range of 1-127. An Extended Address of 0001 to 0128 is not supported and will not be recognized by the command station. Do not attempt an Extended Address in that range using Ops Mode, as the programming operation will not succeed, and it is possible that a random address will be programmed instead.

EasyDCC and Lenz

  • 0 = Analog Mode
    • Not supported by EasyDCC
  • 1-99: Primary Address
  • 100-9999: Extended Address
  • 1-99: Advanced Consist Address

Lenz

To maintain compatibility with their older, pre-DCC Standard command control products, Lenz limited the Primary Addresses to 1 – 99.

  • Primary Address: 1 – 99
  • Extended Address 100 – 9999
  • Consist Address 1 – 99

Atlas

Although Atlas DCC systems are supplied by Lenz, their software lacks support for Extended Addresses and Analog operations.

  • Primary Address: 1 – 99
  • Consist Address 1 – 99

Bachman EZDCC

  • The EZDCC system lacks support for Advanced Consisting
  • Analog operation uses another address.
  • No Extended Addresses
  • Primary Address Range limited to 1-9

NCE

  • 0 = No locomotive selected
  • 1 − 127: Either Primary or Extended depending on how selected, a leading 0 (i.e. 0100) will make selection extended. See Consisting article for more details.
    • If a Primary Address is padded with leading zeros, the command station will interpret it as an Extended Address, and calculate the correct value. During configuration of a multifunction decoder with the handheld throttle it will set CV29's Extended Address flag.
    • Avoid using Primary (2 digit) Addresses, to prevent conflict with Advanced Consist Addresses.
  • 0001 − 9999: Extended Address
    • The command station will accept any address as an Extended Address. A two digit ‘’Extended address must be padded with leading zeros during entry.
      • Example, Extended Address 55 is entered as 0055 or 055. The throttle will display an asterisk (*) before the address indicating an Extended Address.
  • Advanced Consist Address: 1 − 127. Consist Addresses begin at 127, decremented for each additional consist.
Current NCE products do not support analog (no decoder installed) locomotives, older NCE systems, including those built around NCE OEM parts and software, did allow analog operations using a home built (analog only) throttle.

Zimo

  • Analog Mode = User assigned address
  • 1 − 127: Primary Address
  • 100 − 10239: Extended Address
  • 1 − 99: Advanced Consist Address

Accessory Decoder Addressing

Main article: Accessory Decoder
Main article: Accessory Decoder Addressing

As noted above, Basic Accessory Decoder Packets have addresses in the range of 128 − 191 ($80 − $BF) which are reserved for Accessory or Stationary Decoders. They are differentiated from Multifunction Decoder addresses by the value first two bits being 10.

Accessory Decoders have 9- or 11-bit addresses. This is accomplished by the structure of the data packet, where the first byte contains six address bits.

Accessory Decoders can be designed for momentary or contant on devices, the duration of each output is controlled by CVs 515 – 518. Bit 3 of the second byte (C) activates or deactives the controlled device.

As most devices are paired, bit 0 of the second byte determines which pair of outputs are being activated/deactivated. Bits 1 and 2 indicates which of four pairs the packet controls.

Accessory Decoder 9 Bit Address

Basic Accessory Packets

Basic Accessory Decoder Packet
Preamble 0 10AAAAAA 0 1AAACDDD 0 EEEEEEEE 1

Where:

  • A = Address bit,
  • C = Command and
  • D = Data.

C activates/deactivates the addressed decoder as needed. The three data bits allow control of up to 8 functions (0-7), split into 2 pairs of 4 outputs.

By convention, the three address bits (bits 4-6) of the second byte are in One's Complement format. Bit 7 indicates the sign is negative.

Accessory Decoder Extended (Eleven Bit) Address

  • Extended or Signal Accessory Decoder Packet
    • Intended for use with Signal Systems. Sometimes called a Five Digit address, as it can be values up to 16,383.

The Extended Address:

Basic Accessory Decoder Packet
Preamble 0 10AAAAAA 0 0AAA0AA1 0 000XXXXX 0 EEEEEEEE 1
Note that the four CDDD bits of the nine-bit address packet have been replaced with two additional address bits, 0AA1 to make an 11-bit address. The first 9 address bits are still present. Bit 7 (the leading bit) of the second byte is a 0, indicating bits 4-6 are a positive value. This allows the decoder to determine if the packet is for turnouts or signals

The XXXXX is for signal aspects. The five bits are for a single aspect, a value of 00000 indicates absolute stop. The five-bit values are determined by the signalling system and the prototype being modelled.

The following third byte contains 5 bits (XXXXX) which are for signalling applications. The third byte allows combinations up to $1F, or 32 possible signal aspects. A value of 00000 is the absolute stop indication. This allows for various signal aspects dependant on the prototype modelled.

Additional Commands

Additional commands are available for broadcast commands, configuration variable access, and Operations Mode programming. Some commands are unique to the basic and extended addressing modes.

See S-9.2.1, DCC Extended Packet Formats for more detail.

Multifunction Decoder Packet Construction

This is an advanced topic.

Primary Address

Preamble [18] Start Bit Address Byte Data Start Bit Data Byte Data Start Bit Error Btye Packet End Byte
111111111111 0 0AAAAAAA 0 01DCSSSS 0 EEEEEEEE 1

Address Byte

All values are valid except for 0, 11111110 ($FE) and 11111111 ($FF).

  • This byte can be used in special case for instructions, such as Service Mode Programming

Bits 0 – 5 [19] can any value. If both bits 6 and 7 are set to value of 1, the decoder interprets that as an extended address and expects a second byte for address data. A multifunction decoder's primary address may have any value from 1 to 127. Maximum permissible value is 127, but the manufacturer may limit the address space. [1]

For the consist address, see CV19.

Data Byte

  • Bits 6 and 7 are set to 01 indicating this byte is for speed and direction information. These bits can also be used for other types of instruction data, defined in the Extended Packet Format Recommended Practice (RP-9.2.1)
  • "D" is direction. When set to 1 the locomotive should move in the forward direction. [20]
  • "C" is an additional speed bit, which enables the 28 speed step mode when combined with the S bits. For backward compatibility this bit may also be used to control the headlight. [21][22]
  • "S" is the speed instructions.
  • The 14 Speed Step Mode is obsolete.

Error Byte

This byte is used to determine the presence of errors. It cannot be used to correct an error, only identify the presence of one. It is created by an Exclusive OR (XOR) operation on the Address and Instruction Bytes.

Extended Address Packet

Preamble Start Bit Address Byte Data Start Bit Address Byte Data Start Bit Data Byte Data Start Bit Error Btye Packet End Byte
111111111111 0 AAAAAAAA 0 AAAAAAAA 0 CCCDDDDD 0 EEEEEEEE 1

Address Bytes

The Primary Address byte contains seven address bits. If the EAM flag is set in CV29, the decoder will ignore any valid address in CV1, switching to the values stored in CVs 17 and 18.

When the most significant bits are between 1100 0000 and 1110 0111 (decimal values 192-231) inclusive, a second address byte must follow immediately after. These values in the first byte signal to the decoder that this packet is a multifunction decoder packet with an extended address. The two address bytes are separated with a 0 bit.

The most significant bit of the two-byte address is bit 5, bits 6 and 7 having a value of 1 in this case. As 14 of the sixteen available bytes are used, the archaic term 14 bit address may be seen in older documents. [23]

Data Bytes

The data byte contains the instructions for the decoder. It can one to three bytes in length.

The instruction byte is defined as:

  • CCCDDDDD,
  • CCCDDDDD 0 DDDDDDDD,
  • CCCDDDDD 0 DDDDDDDD 0 DDDDDDDD

Each instruction consists of a three-bit instruction field (CCC) followed by a five-bit data field. The five-bit data field may contain instruction subtype or tertiary types as well as flags. See the DCC Extended Packet Formats, S-9.2.1 for further details.

Instruction Bits Purpose
000 Decoder and Consist Control [24]
001 Advanced Operation Instructions [25]
010 Speed and Direction for Reverse Operation [26]
011 Speed and Direction for Forward Operation [27]
100 Function Group One Instructions [28]
101 Function Group Two Instructions [29]
110 Feature Expansion [30]
111 Configuration Variable Access Instruction [31]

Example of Differences Between Two and Four Digit Addressing

Numbers in CVs 1, 17 and 18 in the table are expressed in Hexadecimal. The address is a decimal value. Note that changing the address from Primary to Extended mode changes the value in CV17.

The Extended Address begins with $C0, the next byte contains $63, or 99 in Decimal. The first byte of the Extended Address can only equal values from 192 ($C0) to 231 ($E7). Setting CV29 controls the addressing mode a multifunction decoder will accept. In some DCC systems the software will automatically set a multifunction decoder's CV29 to Extended Address mode when an address within the Primary Address range is padded with leading zeros. Values 128 to 191 indicate an Accessory Decoder or Extended Accessory Decoder address. See the section on Address Partitions above.
Type Address CV1 CV17 CV18
Primary 99 $63 -- --
Extended 099 Undefined $C0 $63
Extended 0099 Undefined $C0 $63

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Additional Resources

Video: Long Addresses and CV29

CV29 is often called the Master Variable because it controls how several other functions operate. This makes it very important to get it right. In this video I'll share with your what CV29 does, and give you a handy table that saves you the trouble of hand calculating the needed values.


Additional Reading

  1. S-9.1 Electrical Standard
  2. S-9.2 Communications Standard (2004)
  3. NEM 671: Digital Control Signal DCC, 2004

NMRA Documents

Normative
  • S-9.1 DCC Electrical Standard
  • S-9.2 DCC Communication Standard
  • S-9.2.1.1 DCC Advanced Extender Packet Formats
  • S-9.3.2 DCC Bi-Directional Communication
Informative
  • TN-3.05 Electrical Specifications for Digital Command Control Decoder Transmission
  • TN-4.05 Electrical Specifications for Digital Command Control Decoder Transmission
  • RCN-210 DCC Protocol Bit Transmission
  • RCN-211 DCC Packet Structure
  • RCN-212 DCC Operating Commands for vehicle decoders
  • RCN-213 DCC Operating commands for accessory decoders
  • RCN-214 DCC configuration commands

There has been a concentrated effort to harmonize the Standards and Rail Community Norms listed above.

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 It is acceptable for Digital Command Stations to restrict the number of valid addresses supported so long as this restriction is clearly and plainly labeled on the package and in the instructions.
  2. Systems which allow use of values in this range as an Extended Address are not compliant with the NMRA Standards.
  3. Multifunction Digital Decoders are used for the purpose of controlling one or more motors and/or accessories. (S-9.2.1)
  4. Accessory Digital Decoders are intended for control of a number of simple functions such as switch machine control or turning on and off lights. It is permissible to develop Digital Decoders that respond to multiple addresses so that more devices can be controlled by a single Digital Decoder. (S-9.2.1)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Values are Inclusive
  6. If the value of Configuration Variable #1 is "00000000" then the decoder will go out of NMRA digital mode and convert to the alternate power source as defined by Configuration Variable #12. This setting will not affect the Digital Decoder's ability to respond to service mode packets (see S 9.2.3). The default value for this Configuration Variable is 3, if the decoder is not installed in a locomotive or other unit when shipped from the manufacturer. (s-9.2.2)
  7. Contains the low-order address bits for Accessory Decoders. The high-order address bits are stored in CV9 [521]. Two types of Accessory Decoder addressing are supported: Decoder-Address and Output-Address. An accessory decoder must support one type, and optionally the other type. The type of decoder is specified in CV29 [541], bit 6. Decoders using either type of addressing will respond to the same Accessory Decoder Control Packet when CV1 [513] = 1 and CV9 [521] = 0. The factory default value is 1. The type(s) of addressing supported must be clearly documented in the manual and on the packaging. (S-9.2.2)
  8. The primary address byte contains 8 bits of address information. If the most significant bits of the address are between 1100-0000 and 1110-0111 (192-231) (inclusive) then a second address byte must immediately follow. This second address byte will then contain an additional 8 bits of address data. (S-9.2.1)
  9. The Extended Address is the locomotives address when the decoder is set up for extended addressing (indicated by a value of "1" in bit location 5 of CV#29). CV#17 contains the most significant bits of the two byte address and must have a value between 11000000 and 11100111, inclusive, in order for this two byte address to be valid. CV 18 contains the least significant bits of the address and may contain any value.
  10. S-9.2.2: The default value for this Configuration Variable is 3, if the decoder is not installed in a locomotive or other unit when shipped from the manufacturer.
  11. Bits 0-6 contain an address with a value between 1 and 127. Bit seven must have a value of "0". If the value of Configuration Variable 1 is "00000000" then the decoder will go out of NMRA digital mode and convert to the alternate power source defined by Configuration Variable 12. This setting will not affect the Digital Decoder's ability to respond to service mode packets (see S 9.2.3). The default value for this Configuration Variable is 3, if the decoder is not installed in a locomotive or other unit when shipped from the manufacturer.
  12. CV17 must have a value between 11000000 and 11100111, inclusive, in order for this two-byte address to be valid. CV18 may contain any value.
  13. Instructions addressed to "broadcast address" 00000000 must be executed by all Multifunction Decoders.
  14. CV12 is optional.
  15. Contains the identity of the alternate power source to which the decoder will be converted should CV1 contain all zeros.
  16. The NMRA allocates the modes on an "as needed" basis.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 There are Digital Command Control systems which permit the use of Extended Addresses between 1 and 127. This is not compliant with the address ranges in the NMRA or NEM DCC standards. References: NMRA S–9.2 or NEM 671 Standards.
  18. A digital decoder must not accept as a valid, any preamble that has less then 10 complete one bits, or require for proper reception of a packet with more than 12 complete one bits. A command station must send a minimum of 14 full preamble bits: S-9.2
  19. Bits are numbered from Right to Left
  20. Forward in this case is in the direction of the front of the locomotive, as observed from the engineer's position within the locomotive.
  21. RP-9.2.1.
  22. A headlight which changes state with every change of the throttle indicates a mismatch in speed steps between the multifunction decoder and the command station.
  23. S-9.2.1, DCC Extended Packet Formats
  24. S-9.2.1, 2.3.1 With the exception of the decoder acknowledgment function (00001111), only a single decoder and consist control instruction may be contained in a packet.
  25. S-9.2.1, 2.3.1.1 The decoder control instructions are intended to set up or modify decoder configurations.
  26. S-9.2.1, 2.3.3 A speed and direction instruction is used to send information to motors connected to MultiFunction Decoders
  27. S-9.2.1, 2.3.3 A speed and direction instruction is used to send information to motors connected to MultiFunction Decoders
  28. S-9.2.1, 2.3.4 Up to 5 auxiliary functions (functions FL and F1-F4) can be controlled by the Function Group One instruction.
  29. S-9.2.1, 2.3.5 Up to 8 additional auxiliary functions (F5-F12) can be controlled by a Function Group Two instruction.
  30. S-9.2.1, 2.3.6. Also see TN-3-05
  31. S-9.2.1, 2.3.7 The Configuration Variable Access instructions are intended to set up or modify Configuration Variables either on the programming track or on the main line.