Term: RailCom

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Summary: RailCom equipped decoders can transmit information back to the DCC System

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RailCom

RailCom® and RailComPlus® are registered trademarks of Lenz.

RailCom Working Group

LENZ, KUHN, TAMS and ZIMO formed the RailCom Working Group to further develop "bidirectional communication" based on NMRA Draft RP's 9.3.1& 9.3.2. Work on the protocol began in 2006, with some decoders from 2005 already supporting RailCom.

Split with Lenz

In 2011 Zimo exited the agreement when Lenz terminated their licence. Zimo continues to make decoders which support RailCom only. In addition to Zimo, a number of DCC decoder manufacturers, as well as model railway manufacturers, declined to support RailComPlus in their manufactures.

Their stated reason for declining RailComPlus was related to the licensing and approval conditions demanded by Lenz and ESU, which these manufacturers found to be unacceptable, in that they prohibited the free exchange of ideas and would impeded development and technical progress of digital control for model railways. There were opinions expressed that the inclusion of a patented and proprietary technology in the DCC Standard was a problem, one that could lead to the owners using their IP against other manufacturers.

RailCom and RailComPlus

RailCom

Under Digital Command Control, multifunction decoders do not communicate with the command station. The command station sends commands, and the multifunction decoder acts on it. With Railcom multi-function decoders can report back to the command station.

  1. Ops Mode Programming is easier. Ops Mode or Program On Main is supported my many multi-function decoders and command stations. Although it is a blind programming method: a CV value changes, but the multi-function decoder cannot confirm it nor easily read existing CV values. Railcom can transmit CV values without a programming track, as well as provide confirmation of changes to a CV.
  2. Train number detection: With RailCom compatible detection modules the multi-function decoder can transmit their presence in a block along with the [[address], or direction.

RailCom Terminology

  • RailCom Cutout: A gap in the DCC transmission, created by a RailCom Cutout unit, of approximately 500µs, for the decoder to send RailCom Messages.
  • RailCom Message: A message which a RailCom-capable decoder sends out in the RailCom-specified procedure. Consists of at least one, often several RailCom Datagrams i.e.: Four short (12 bit), or one short and one long (36 bit) datagram. Error detection 4:3 bits sent.
  • RailCom Datagram: data word which consists of a RailCom Identifier (4 bits) and the data field of the datagram (8, 20, or 32 bits) There are three lengths for datagrams with a total of 12, 24, or 36 bits (Identifier and Data field together).
  • RailCom Identifier: The first four bits of a datagram define its content. Example: Identifier 0011 introduces a short datagram (8 bit data field) for the speed report in km/h; Identifier 0110 indicates a datagram with a 16 bit data field for a position report (number of a track section, an electronic milepost, etc.); Identifier 1111 is at the beginning of a CV message, a response to a DCC CV readout command.
  • RailCom Broadcast / RailCom Broadcast Datagram: The first datagram place (Channel, 12 bit) in every message is reserved for a Broadcast Datagram. The content of a broadcast datagram relates (in contrast to all other RailCom Datagrams) not to the address of the previous DCC package. In the case of a locomotive decoder it is used to transmit the decoder address to Local RailCom detectors such as address display modules, each with an isolated track section monitor, and recognize the train currently located there with the help of the "Broadcast Datagram".

General Information

RailCom means, that within the framework of the NMRA DCC protocol, there is a flow of information not only towards the decoders, but also in the opposite direction. Not just transmitting commands, etc., to a Multifunction Decoder, but also messages such as receipts and status information from the decoders.

The basic functionality of RailCom is based on the fact that in the otherwise continuous DCC energy and data stream, short gaps (“cutouts”, max. 500µS) can be inserted into the DCC signal on the rails, providing decoders with the time and opportunity to send data bytes which can be evaluated by stationary detectors.

With the help of RailCom ...

  • Any commands which are received can be acknowledged by the decoder, increasing the operational reliability and bandwidth of the DCC System, since commands that have already been acknowledged will not require repetition.
  • Current data from decoders reported to the control center (the Global Detector) such as the real speed of the Train, engine load, routing and position codes, fuel supply, and current values of the CV's on request.
  • Multifunction Decoder addresses can be recognized by local detectors connected to individual isolated track sections for train number recognition and address display.

The original intent of RailCom would enable available RailCom-enabled products to report the vehicle addresses on isolated track sections (which in the broadcast process reacts very quickly providing there is only one RailCom vehicle in the section), read out of the content of CV's on-the-main (PoM), and data from the decoder as a report to display speed, load, decoder temperature.

RailComPlus

RailComPlus appeared in 2010. RailcomPlus is an enhancement of the original Lenz RailCom standard by ESU. Only multi-function decoders which are 100% compatible with the RailComPlus standard can carry the RailComPlus logo.

RailcomPlus is an improvement over Railcom. It allows a locomotive to be automatically recognized and registered by the command station, previously only possible with Märklin's MFX standard for their two rail trains.

The big improvement in RailComPlus was messaging speed. RailcomPlus transmits not only the locomotive's speed, but all the functions available at the same time. This makes the data read function much faster, in addition to new commands to read or write groups of CVs.

  • A command station compatible with RailcomPlus displays the locomotive, its functions, and saves them for future use.
  • If the DCC address is already in use by another multi-function decoder in your command station's database, the command station will automatically offer to change the new locomotive’s address to another address which is not in use.

Technical

RailCom Cutout Timing, from NMRA TN-2-05 DRAFT

RailCom Details

To enable the bi-directional features of RailCom some additional components are required:

  • A RailCom enabled decoder
    • Lenz, ESU's Lokpilot and Loksound multi-function decoders, and Zimo are among the makers of multi-function decoders with RailCom features.
  • An external RailCom transmitter
  • A detector or reader
  • A cutout device that disconnects the DCC signal from the track. This cutout lasts for 488 microSeconds (0.488 milliseconds). This break is so brief it doesn't cause problems with multi-function decoders.
    • For data transmission to work, the system must interrupt track power between DCC packets. This disconnection period is called a cutout. The transmission interval is divided into two channels. Each channel can be used independently.
  • During the "cutout" a +/− 30 mA signal consisting of two or four bytes is generated. A current of 10mA is seen as "zero", and a current of less than 6mA is a one.
  • The detector has a very low input impedance (almost a short), any other impedances in the circuit will have little effect on resulting current signal.

Bi-directional communication is enabled in the multi-function decoder with CV29, bit 3. Some multi-function decoders use CV28 to determine the messages that are to be transmitted. The usual configuration of this CV is:

  1. CV28, Bit 0: Channel 1 used for address broadcast.
  2. CV28, Bit 1: Channel 2 used for data (CV values, speed, or other data)
  3. CV28, Bit 2: Channel 1 used for command acknowledge

The default for CV28 is 3 (Bits 0 and 1 are set to 1 or High)

What Can RailCom Do?

  • Locomotive Identification. When a RailCom equipped multi-function decoder enters a section of track with a detector, its presence will be immediately noted. At the same time you'll know where your train is.
  • Info Display: A number of items can be supplied by the multi-function decoder: Speed, fuel, water level, etc.
  • Data read back: It is possible to display CV values during programming, and acknowledge commands
  • Unknown multi-function decoder: If a new locomotive is introduced to the layout, you can find out its address, and even allow a throttle to acquire it automatically.
  • RailComPlus adds the ability to read the multi-function decoder's function capabilities and automatically register the locomotive with the command station.

Operation

Immediately prior to the cutout occurring a RailCom compatible command station transmits an Idle Packet. This signals to a RailCom enabled multi-function decoder that the cutout will follow.

RailCom uses two channels or slots. Normally a RailCom enabled multi-function decoder will not transmit during the cutout period, unless it was addressed immediately prior to the cutout occurring. The two channels allow for a response from two multi-function decoders in the same power district. These transmissions occur at the same time. If the multi-function decoders have not been addressed, they won't respond.

By using the Address Broadcast feature, multi-function decoders will transmit their addresses, but only using slot one. If multiple multi-function decoders are active in slot one, the result is garbage. Any data on the second slot will be readable, being transmitted by a multi-function decoder which was addressed. Should an unknown locomotive enter a power district it can transmit its address and register its presence.

Applications

Railcom allows a device to interrogate the multi-function decoder and learn some details.

This can be used with block detection, where upon entering a block equipped with a detection system, the detector can report back which locomotive has entered the block.

Some command stations are equipped with Railcom, such as ESU's EcoS system, detect the presence of a Railcom equipped multi-function decoder, and imports a number of parameters from the multi-function decoder, such as address, sound file, function assignments and icons for the functions, without any operator intervention.

Automation

RailCom can be used for automation, allowing events to be triggered by a locomotive entering or exiting a zone with a detector. The detector can supply status information to an external computer running appropriate software, which can then trigger various events, such as headlight on/off and sound horn/whistle when entering or leaving a tunnel. Other possibilities include only having passenger trains stop at stations, or selected stations.

Another possibility is using the computer to calculate fuel/water usage, instructing a steam locomotive to halt and take on fuel and/or water. Diesels, which need less fueling can proceed past these facilities. Steam locomotives can also be instructed to stop at an appropriate fuelling location, for oil or coal. In addition to these functions, it could also be used to route a train onto the correct track for passenger or fuel operations. For example, southbound trains are routed to the south platform and northbound to the opposite platform.

This is all possible using the appropriate software and a computer. It will require writing routines or scripts to create and control these actions. The computer will create and transmit instructions to the command station to activate and control various functions in multifunction and accessory decoders as per the scripts.

Videos

What is RailComPlus?

What is RailComPlus? Matt Herman from ESU LLC - LokSound explains, and shows us how it works with their new DCC CabControl system.

Standalone Cutout Device for RailCom

Produce or remove a cutout for implementing RailCom on your Model Railway layout

Manufacturer Support

Lenz
ESU
Uhlenbrock
Tams Elektronik
TCS
Roco

RailCom Devices

BiDiB

The openDCC project supports Railcom via the Open DCC GBM command station. With PC model control software block occupancy and train identification are possible.

ESU

Transmitter

ESU offers the 54680 RailCom transmitter. This transmitter, installed in a vehicle with a multifunction decoder which does not support RailCom, adds full RailCom compatibility. There is no need to upgrade the existing multifunction decoder. It is programmed to match the address of the vehicle and will respond to a RailCom receiver.

Detectors
These devices only work with specified ESU command stations and boosters.

Lenz

LRC100

The LRC100 is a small module which allows locomotives equipped with a multifunction decoder (without RailCom) to be retrofitted for RailCom.

LRC 120

Lenz offers the LRC120 address display.

The LRC120, which is a local detector, displays the address of a locomotive in a track section connected to the LRC120. This track section may be located at any point on your layout.

For the LRC120 to display the address, a RailCom capable booster must be used, such as Digital plus LZV100 or LV102, which currently have this feature. These units are equipped with the necessary cutout device.

When the LRC-120 is active the first digit of the display displays a - . When a locomotive equipped with a RailCom enters the section monitored by the LRC120, the address of the locomotive will be shown on the four-digit display.

If the locomotive is a member of a consist, the consist's address will be displayed. Thus, the display always shows the address which you can use to control the speed and direction of the locomotive from your throttle.

The LRC120 is also capable (in the future) of displaying CVs.

Zimo

Zimo multifunction decoders since September 2007 support CV readout, speed and load feedback, address broadcast.

The MX31ZL contains a global detector; for command stations MX1, MX1HS, MX1EC plug-in global detectors were planned for late 2007.

Accessory Decoders: RailCom will make the feedback of the turnout position. The MX82W is a version of the MX82 with 4 outputs to turnouts or 8 signal lamps.

Troubleshooting

Most issues are related to the command station and multifunction decoders.

Many, but not all, command stations generate a preamble with more than the minimum number of 12 bits. The extra preamble bits can be used for the RailCom cutout. Problems arise with multifunction decoders expecting 12 or more preamble bits. Many multifunction decoders will function with only 10 preamble bits. Should the command station generate 16 preamble bits, 4 can be used for the RailCom cutout, without out impairing decoder operation.

Lenz DCC Issues

Lenz DCC system software Version 3.6 has RailCom active by default.

If locomotives do not respond, verify the multi-function decoder installed. A number of non RailCom capable multi-function decoders offered do not handle RailCom signals properly and may not work with a Lenz DCC system. To solve this issue, RailCom must be disabled in the command station. See the manual for your system.

Lenz command stations and boosters accurately implement the NMRA DCC standards, often any problems encountered are related to multi-function decoders which do not correctly follow the DCC Standard.

TCS WowSound Multifunction Decoders

TCS WowSound multifunction decoders may not function correctly if RailCom is active. This is usually related to having a European command station, such as those from Lenz or ESU. Disabling the RailCom features should eliminate the issue.

Some TCS multifunction decoders do support RailCom. Firmware Version 89 and higher support RailCom and RailComPlus, provided they are purchased directly from TCS. Vendor stock may be a lower firmware version and results may vary.

NCE Multifunction Decoders

Due to the design of NCE's multifunction decoders, they do not correctly follow the NMRA DCC standard. The solutions are to disable RailCom at the booster or replace the decoder.

Accessory Decoders

Some accessory decoders, if receiving instructions via the DCC Power Bus, may not work well with RailCom.

Further Reading

References

  1. NMRA
    1. Communications Standard for Digital Command Control Basic Decoder Transmission
    2. TN-2-05 DRAFT
  2. Lenz website, in German. Unfortunately, Lenz no longer maintains a presence in North America.
  3. ESU RailComPlus FAQ
  4. locgeek.com Railcom-Railcom-Plus-What-are-These?
  5. RailCom Uses
  6. DCC4PC Railcom products
  7. www.lenz.com: This website is no longer active.
Some of the information presented was gleaned from newsletters published by Zimo.

JMRI also supports RailCom.